Physalin F induces cell apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cells by targeting NF-kappaB and generating reactive oxygen species

Szu Ying Wu, Yann Lii Leu, Ya Ling Chang, Tian Shung Wu, Ping Chung Kuo, Yu Ren Liao, Che Ming Teng, Shiow Lin Pan

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Abstract

Background: The aim of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms of physalin F, an effective purified extract of Physalis angulata L. (Solanacae), in renal carcinoma A498 cells. Methodology/Principal Findings: Physalin F was observed to significantly induce cytotoxicity of three human renal carcinoma A498, ACHN, and UO-31 cells in a concentration-dependent manner; this was especially potent in A498 cells. The physalin F-induced cell apoptosis of A498 cells was characterized by MTT assay, nuclear DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation. Using flow cytometry analysis, physalin F induced A498 cell apoptosis as demonstrated by the accumulation of the sub-G1 phase in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, physalin F-mediated accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused Bcl-2 family proteins, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL degradation, which led to disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. These effects were associated with induction of caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity, which led to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. However, the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH) resulted in the inhibition of these events and reversed physalin F-induced cell apoptosis. In addition, physalin F suppressed NF-κB activity and nuclear translocation of p65 and p50, which was reversed by NAC and GSH. Conclusion: Physalin F induced cell apoptosis through the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway and suppressed NF-κB activation in human renal cancer A498 cells. Thus, physalin F appears to be a promising anti-cancer agent worthy of further clinical development.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere40727
JournalPloS one
Volume7
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jul 16

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

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