Physiological knock-knee in preschool children: Prevalence, correlating factors, gait analysis, and clinical significance

Chii Jeng Lin, Sheng Che Lin, Wagon Huang, Chin San Ho, You Li Chou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Physiological knock-knee (PKK) was categorized by measuring intermalleolar distance (IMD), a clinically simple method, to evaluate the prevalence and correlating factors in 305 preschool children. The prevalence in this cross-sectional study was relatively high, and it was age related (p = 0.002; 64, 44, and 34% for ages 3-4, 4-5, and 5-6 years, respectively). The following factors were correlated with PKK: use of walking chair early (p = 0.0001), independently walked late (p ≃ 0.0005), dependently walked longer (p = 0.0001), concurrence with flatfoot (p = 0.001), and angular deformity (toe in/out, p = 0.03). Gait analysis, with spatiotemporal, kinematics, and kinetics parameters, was performed to evaluate the ambulatory significance. Preschool children with PKK have a shorter stride length (p = 0.02) and a slower walking speed (p = 0.004). Dynamic hyperextension of the knee is noted for 8 degrees during the whole gait cycle (p < 0.05). We conclude that PKK is a variable that should be considered in the development of mature gait for preschool children.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)650-654
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Pediatric Orthopaedics
Volume19
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1999 Sep 13

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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