Pilot control of an auto-balancing two-wheeled cart

Mi Ching Tsai, Jia Sheng Hu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


The control system of an auto-balancing two-wheeled cart (ABTWC) is inherently unstable, displays a non-minimum phase and can be piloted by a joystick that has 2 d.o.f. This paper employs a state feedback technique to design the stabilizing controller for an ABTWC and develops a pilot algorithm, i.e., differential steering, which converts two joysticks' commands into two torque directives for transportation. This allows the user to operate this cart linearly for both motion and orientation control via a joystick. Control examples are given to illustrate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed controller and pilot algorithm.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)817-827
Number of pages11
JournalAdvanced Robotics
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Jun 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Software
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Science Applications


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