Polyaniline-Based Glyco-Condensation on Au Nanoparticles Enhances Immunotherapy in Lung Cancer

Wen Pin Su, Li Chan Chang, Wei How Song, Li Xing Yang, Liu Chun Wang, Zi Chun Chia, Yu Cheng Chin, Yan Shen Shan, Chih Chia Huang, Chen Sheng Yeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Lung cancer is considered among the deadliest cancers with a poor prognosis. Au@PG nanoparticles (NPs) are gold (Au)-based NPs featuring a polyaniline-based glyco structure (PG) generated from the polymerization of ortho-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside (ONPG) with promising M1 macrophage polarization activity, resulting in tumor remodeling and from a cold to a hot microenvironment, which promotes the cytotoxic T cell response and tumor inhibition. The combination of Au@PG NPs and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) therapy improved tumor inhibition and immunosuppression, accompanied by the secretion of immunogenic cytokines. A one-pot synthetic method was developed to achieve glyco-condensation during the formation of Au@PG NPs, which induced macrophage polarization more efficiently than Au@glucose, Au@mannose, and Au@galactose NPs. The switch from M2 to M1 macrophages was dependent on NP size, with smaller Au@PG NPs performing better than larger ones, with effectiveness ranked as follows: 32.2 nm ≈ 29.8 nm < 26.4 nm < 18.3 nm. Cellular uptake by endocytosis induced size-dependent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which resulted in the activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), leading to immune modulations and macrophage polarization. Our results suggested the promising potential of Au@PG NPs in lung cancer immunotherapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24144-24159
Number of pages16
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jun 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)


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