Aphyocypris kikuchii is a cyprinid species endemic to northern and eastern Taiwan and is the only primary freshwater fish native east of the Coastal Mountain Range. In total, 92 individuals of A. kikuchii from seven populations in three regions of the island were surveyed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. High haplotype diversity (h = 0.989) and low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.009) of mtDNA were detected. Negative values of Tajima's D and unimodal mismatch distributions probably reflect a history of recent demographic expansions from small populations. Three major haplotype clusters displayed geographically non-overlapping distributions, indicating a long-term isolation between regions. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance showed significant genetic structuring among populations (ΦST = 0.66). Significant haplotype heterogeneity was also detected among populations within regions (ΦSC = 0.41, P < 0.001) and among regions (ΦCT = 0.43, P < 0.05). Molecular clock estimates of coalescence in the three major mtDNA lineages indicated coalescence in the most recent common ancestor c. 0.11-0.39 million years ago. Haplotypes of cluster B nested as interior nodes in the haplotype network, indicating that migrations from Shueilian (SL) populations to the northern region (cluster A) and to the eastern region (cluster C) may have occurred independently. Lineages A and B + C should be managed as two distinct evolutionarily significant units, while the northern, SL and southern groups should be managed as separate management units.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Aquatic Science