Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) systems allow complex laboratory assays to be carried out on a single chip using less time, reagents, and manpower than traditional methods. There are many chips addressing PCR and other DNA assays, but few that address blood cell analysis. Blood analysis, particularly of the cellular component, is highly important in both medical and scientific fields. Traditionally blood samples require a vial of blood, then several processing steps to separate and stain the various components, followed by the preparations for each specific assay to be performed. A LOC system for blood cell analysis and sorting would be ideal. The microfluidic-based system we have developed requires a mere drop of blood to be introduced onto the chip. Once on chip, the blood is mixed with both fluorescent and magnetic labels. The lab-on-a-chip device then uses a syringe drive to push the cells through the chip, while a permanent magnet is positioned to pull the magnetically labeled white blood cells to a separate channel. The white blood cells, labeled with different color fluorescent quantum dots (Qdots) conjugated to antibodies against WBC subpopulations, are analyzed and counted, while a sampling of red blood cells is also counted in a separate channel. This device will be capable of processing whole blood samples on location in a matter of minutes and displaying the cell count and should eventually find use in neonatology, AIDS and remote site applications.