Potential contribution of lifestyle and socioeconomic factors to healthy user bias in antihypertensives and lipidlowering drugs

Mitsuyo Kinjo, Edward Lai, Maarit Jaana Korhonen, Rita L. McGill, Soko Setoguchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objectives Healthy user bias arises when users of preventive medications such as lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs), hormone replacement therapy and antihypertensive (AH) medications are healthier than nonusers due to factors other than medication effects, making the medications appear more beneficial in observational studies of effectiveness and safety. The purpose of the study is to examine factors contributing to healthy user effect in patients taking AHs or LLDs. Methods Among patients with hypertension or hyperlipidaemia in a population-based sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2010), we assessed the association between socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and the use of AHs/LLDs by logistic regression with adjustment for demographics and comorbidities in a cross-sectional study. Results When 9715 AH/LLD users were compared with 3725 non-users, AH/LLD users were more likely to be: highly educated (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.3), nonimpoverished (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.4), current nonsmokers (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.4), physically active (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2) and consume more calcium (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.3) but less likely to have normal body mass index (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.6 to 0.7) or to meet dietary sodium recommendations (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 0.9). Conclusions We identified several salutary lifestyle factors associated with AH/LLD use in a representative US population. Healthy user effect may be partly explained by better socioeconomic profiles and lifestyles in AH/LLD users compared with non-users.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere000417
JournalOpen Heart
Volume4
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Mar 1

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Antihypertensive Agents
Life Style
Lipids
Drug Users
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Dietary Sodium
Nutrition Surveys
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Hyperlipidemias
Population
Observational Studies
Comorbidity
Body Mass Index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Logistic Models
Demography
Hypertension
Calcium
Safety

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Kinjo, Mitsuyo ; Lai, Edward ; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana ; McGill, Rita L. ; Setoguchi, Soko. / Potential contribution of lifestyle and socioeconomic factors to healthy user bias in antihypertensives and lipidlowering drugs. In: Open Heart. 2017 ; Vol. 4, No. 1.
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abstract = "Objectives Healthy user bias arises when users of preventive medications such as lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs), hormone replacement therapy and antihypertensive (AH) medications are healthier than nonusers due to factors other than medication effects, making the medications appear more beneficial in observational studies of effectiveness and safety. The purpose of the study is to examine factors contributing to healthy user effect in patients taking AHs or LLDs. Methods Among patients with hypertension or hyperlipidaemia in a population-based sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2010), we assessed the association between socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and the use of AHs/LLDs by logistic regression with adjustment for demographics and comorbidities in a cross-sectional study. Results When 9715 AH/LLD users were compared with 3725 non-users, AH/LLD users were more likely to be: highly educated (OR 1.2, 95{\%} CI 1.2 to 1.3), nonimpoverished (OR 1.3, 95{\%} CI 1.2 to 1.4), current nonsmokers (OR 1.2, 95{\%} CI 1.1 to 1.4), physically active (OR 1.1, 95{\%} CI 1.0 to 1.2) and consume more calcium (OR 1.1, 95{\%} CI 1.0 to 1.3) but less likely to have normal body mass index (OR 0.6, 95{\%} CI 0.6 to 0.7) or to meet dietary sodium recommendations (OR 0.8, 95{\%} CI 0.7 to 0.9). Conclusions We identified several salutary lifestyle factors associated with AH/LLD use in a representative US population. Healthy user effect may be partly explained by better socioeconomic profiles and lifestyles in AH/LLD users compared with non-users.",
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Potential contribution of lifestyle and socioeconomic factors to healthy user bias in antihypertensives and lipidlowering drugs. / Kinjo, Mitsuyo; Lai, Edward; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana; McGill, Rita L.; Setoguchi, Soko.

In: Open Heart, Vol. 4, No. 1, e000417, 01.03.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - Objectives Healthy user bias arises when users of preventive medications such as lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs), hormone replacement therapy and antihypertensive (AH) medications are healthier than nonusers due to factors other than medication effects, making the medications appear more beneficial in observational studies of effectiveness and safety. The purpose of the study is to examine factors contributing to healthy user effect in patients taking AHs or LLDs. Methods Among patients with hypertension or hyperlipidaemia in a population-based sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2010), we assessed the association between socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and the use of AHs/LLDs by logistic regression with adjustment for demographics and comorbidities in a cross-sectional study. Results When 9715 AH/LLD users were compared with 3725 non-users, AH/LLD users were more likely to be: highly educated (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.3), nonimpoverished (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.4), current nonsmokers (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.4), physically active (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2) and consume more calcium (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.3) but less likely to have normal body mass index (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.6 to 0.7) or to meet dietary sodium recommendations (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 0.9). Conclusions We identified several salutary lifestyle factors associated with AH/LLD use in a representative US population. Healthy user effect may be partly explained by better socioeconomic profiles and lifestyles in AH/LLD users compared with non-users.

AB - Objectives Healthy user bias arises when users of preventive medications such as lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs), hormone replacement therapy and antihypertensive (AH) medications are healthier than nonusers due to factors other than medication effects, making the medications appear more beneficial in observational studies of effectiveness and safety. The purpose of the study is to examine factors contributing to healthy user effect in patients taking AHs or LLDs. Methods Among patients with hypertension or hyperlipidaemia in a population-based sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2010), we assessed the association between socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and the use of AHs/LLDs by logistic regression with adjustment for demographics and comorbidities in a cross-sectional study. Results When 9715 AH/LLD users were compared with 3725 non-users, AH/LLD users were more likely to be: highly educated (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.3), nonimpoverished (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.4), current nonsmokers (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.4), physically active (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2) and consume more calcium (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.3) but less likely to have normal body mass index (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.6 to 0.7) or to meet dietary sodium recommendations (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 0.9). Conclusions We identified several salutary lifestyle factors associated with AH/LLD use in a representative US population. Healthy user effect may be partly explained by better socioeconomic profiles and lifestyles in AH/LLD users compared with non-users.

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