Predicting the ballistic limit for plain woven glass/epoxy composite laminate

S. T. Jenq, H. S. Jing, Charles Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Citations (Scopus)


This paper is concerned with predicting the ballistic limit of plain woven glass/epoxy composite laminates struck by a 14.9 gm bullet-like rigid projectile with a tip radius of 5 mm. The 4 mm thick square specimens were clamped along their 100 mm edges. A pneumatic gun was used to propel the bullet with incident velocities ranging from 140 to 200 m/sec. The ballistic limit was experimentally determined to be near 153 m/sec. A series of quasi-static punch tests was performed in order to investigate the progressive damage modes of the targets and to obtain the punch load-displacement relation. These quasi-static punch tests were conducted to characterize the penetration process. Similar to dynamic impact test results, the major damage modes for targets subjected to quasi-static punch loading were found to be governed by delamination and fiber breakage. After specimens were perforated, a steady friction force was observed from quasi-static punch tests. Test results also indicate that the rhombus-shaped delamination of impact damaged samples is greater than that of quasi-statically punched specimens. A partial hybrid stress finite element code was incorporated with the proposed static penetration model to simulate the dynamic impact process. An energy consideration was applied to predict the ballistic limit. The difference between the predicted ballistic limit and test findings was found to be approximately 24% if the target's static material properties were used in the code simulation. Due to the rate-sensitive nature of glass/epoxy composites, the effect of dynamic elastic properties on the predicted ballistic limit was further studied. Good agreement between the predicted ballistic limit and test results was found if the target's elastic moduli used in simulation were increased to two times the static values.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)451-464
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Impact Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1994 Aug

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Automotive Engineering
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Ocean Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Predicting the ballistic limit for plain woven glass/epoxy composite laminate'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this