Prenatal assessment of normal fetal humerus volume by three-dimensional ultrasound

Chiung Hsin Chang, Chen Hsiang Yu, Huei Chen Ko, Fong Ming Chang, Hsi Yao Chen

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16 Citations (Scopus)


Because fetal humerus dysplasia is associated with a variety of congenital syndromes, prenatal assessment of the fetal humerus growth is very important. The fetal humerus volume is one of the indexes in evaluating the humerus growth, but it has never been studied by 3-D ultrasound (US) in utero. To establish a normal reference chart of the fetal humerus volume for clinical use, we undertook a prospective and cross-sectional study using 3-D US to assess the fetal humerus volume in normal pregnancy. A total of 216 singleton fetuses that ranged between 20 and 40 weeks of gestation and fit the criteria of normal pregnancies were included in this study. Our results showed that the fetal humerus volume is highly correlated with the gestational age (GA). Using GA as the independent variable and the humerus volume as the dependent variable, the best-fit regression equation was humerus volume (mL) = 0.0044GA2 - 0.0841GA + 0.6874 (r = 0.97, n = 216, p < 0.0001). For clinical use, a chart of normal growth centiles of the fetal humerus volume was then established based on this equation. In addition, the common indexes of fetal biometry, such as biparietal diameter, occipitofrontal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length and estimated fetal weight, were all highly correlated with the humerus volume (all p < 0.0001). In conclusion, our data of the fetal humerus volume assessed by 3-D US can serve as a useful reference in evaluating the fetal humerus growth during normal gestation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1675-1680
Number of pages6
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2003 Dec

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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