Prevalence and Determinants of Multiple Forms of Malnutrition among Adults with Different Body Mass Index: A Population-Based Survey in the Philippines

Wan Chen Hsu, Aileen R. De Juras, Susan C. Hu

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Background. The multiple forms of malnutrition, including overnutrition, undernutrition, and diet-related noncommunicable diseases, are emerging crises in Asian countries. Past studies have focused more on malnutrition among overweight/obese individuals; however, limited research has examined chronic energy-deficient adults. Therefore, this study is aimed at investigating the prevalence and determinants of different forms of malnutrition among adults with different body mass index, using the Philippines as an example. Findings from this study will guide the development and implementation of public health nutrition programs and policies. Methods. A representative dataset from the 2013 Philippine National Nutrition Survey was used in the study. Adults aged ≥20 years (n=16,826) were included in the analysis after excluding those with missing values. Six phenotypes of malnutrition were assessed, including three in overweight/obese adults (overweight/obese with metabolic syndrome; those with micronutrient deficiency-anemia, vitamin A deficiency, and iodine insufficiency; and those with both metabolic syndrome and micronutrient deficiency) and three in chronic energy-deficient (CED) adults (CED with either metabolic syndrome or micronutrient deficiency and with both metabolic syndrome and micronutrient deficiency). Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were examined as the determinants of different forms of malnutrition, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. The prevalence of the six phenotypes of malnutrition ranged from 0.4% to 10.2%, where overweight/obese with metabolic syndrome was the most predominant type. The multinomial logistic regression models indicated that older age was the major risk factor across all phenotypes. Sex was associated with the outcomes in the overweight/obesity group, whereas employment status was correlated with CED adults. Furthermore, higher educational levels, being married, living in affluent households, and not smoking were protective factors for conditions related to CED but not overweight/obese individuals. Conclusion. Malnutrition in all its forms is a significant public health concern that must be understood and addressed. Policymakers should implement appropriate intervention programs to control these nutritional problems considering the specific risk factors for the adult population.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3182289
JournalBioMed research international
Publication statusPublished - 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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