Background: The rapidly increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a global concern. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors for the fecal carriage of drug-resistant E. coli and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) among children. Materials and methods: In this prospective study, stool samples from children aged 0–18 years were obtained within three days of hospitalization between April 2016 and March 2019. E. coli were selected and tested for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-production and antimicrobial susceptibility. Multilocus sequence typing, blaCTX-M gene groups and ExPEC were determined using polymerase chain reactions. Questionnaires were recorded for risk factor analysis. Results: Among 179 E. coli isolates, 44.1% were multi-drug resistant, 20.7% produced ESBL, and 50.3% were ExPEC. Children carrying ESBL-producing E. coli were younger than those carrying non-ESBL strains. Several anthropogenic factors, including drinking water process, pork consumption, pets and household density might be associated with ESBL-producing E. coli, sequence type (ST) 131 E. coli, or ExPEC fecal carriage. Compared with families who live in less crowded houses, participants with pets had a similar trend of higher risks of ESBL-producing E. coli, ST131 E. coli, and ExPEC fecal carriage among those living in houses accommodating relatively more people. Conclusions: Children accounted for a large proportion of instances of feces carrying ESBL E. coli. In addition to antimicrobial control for people and livestocks, avenues of exposure, such as drinking water, food, pets, household density, and socioeconomic deprivation might present potentially novel opportunities to reduce the burden of nonsusceptible E. coli and ExPEC.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- General Immunology and Microbiology
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases