Prevalence of malformed frogs in Kaoping and Tungkang river basins of southern Taiwan

Da Ji Huang, Yuh Wen Chiu, Chien Min Chen, Kai Hsiang Huang, Shu Yin Wang

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3 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, we found many amphibians with bizarre appearances, known as malformations in Pingtung County, southern Taiwan. For this investigation we collected frogs inhabiting the Kaoping and Tungkang river watersheds between February 2006 and June 2007. Among the total number of 10,909 normal frogs (i. e., anurans) collected during the investigation period, the Indian rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) account for the greatest number, next is the Chinese bullfrog (Rana rugulosa). Of all the 244 captured malformed frogs, the Indian rice frog account for the greatest proportion. These malformed frogs have their main distribution in upstream areas of these two rivers. Our result indicates that the appearance rate of malformed frogs is 1.8% in the upstream reaches of the Kaoping River and 2.6%, and 0.8%, respectively in the upstream and midstream reaches of the Tungkang river. The most-commonly-found malformation is the lack of palms, followed by the lack of appendages, exostosis, and a malformed appendicular. It is, therefore, reasonable to speculate that the causes for the malformation may be related to the increased organic pollutants and agricultural chemicals used in the upstream reaches of these two rivers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)335-341
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Environmental Biology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2010 May

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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