Pterostilbene, a natural dimethylated analog of resveratrol, is known to have diverse pharmacologic activities including anticancer, anti-inflammation, antioxidant, apoptosis, anti-proliferation and analgesic potential. However, the effects of pterostilbene in preventing invasion of cancer cells have not been studied. Here, we report our finding that pterostilbene significantly suppressed 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced invasion, migration and metastasis of human hepatoma cells (HepG2 cells). Increase in the enzyme activity, protein and messenger RNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were observed in TPA-treated HepG2 cells, and these were blocked by pterostilbene. In addition, pterostilbene can inhibit TPA-induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptor. Transient transfection experiments also showed that pterostilbene strongly inhibited TPA-stimulated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1)-dependent transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells. Moreover, pterostilbene can suppress TPA-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and protein kinase C that are upstream of NF-κB and AP-1. Significant therapeutic effects were further demonstrated in vivo by treating nude mice with pterostilbene (50 and 250 mg/kg intraperitoneally) after inoculation with HepG2 cells into the tail vein. Presented data reveal that pterostilbene is a novel, effective, anti-metastatic agent that functions by downregulating MMP-9 gene expression.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research