Quantum Correlation Generation Capability of Experimental Processes

Wei Hao Huang, Shih Hsuan Chen, Chun Hao Chang, Tzu Liang Hsu, Kuan Jou Wang, Che Ming Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) steering and Bell nonlocality illustrate two different kinds of correlations predicted by quantum mechanics. They not only motivate the exploration of the foundation of quantum mechanics, but also serve as important resources for quantum-information processing in the presence of untrusted measurement apparatuses. Herein, a method for characterizing the creation of EPR steering and Bell nonlocality is introduced for dynamical processes in experiments. It shows that the capability of an experimental process to create quantum correlations can be quantified and identified simply by preparing separable states as test inputs of the process and then performing local measurements on single qubits of the corresponding outputs. This finding enables the construction of objective benchmarks for the two-qubit controlled operations used to perform universal quantum computation. It demonstrates this utility by examining the experimental capability of creating quantum correlations with the controlled-phase operations on the IBM Quantum Experience and Amazon Braket Rigetti superconducting quantum computers. The results show that the method provides a useful diagnostic tool for evaluating the primitive operations of nonclassical correlation creation in noisy intermediate scale quantum devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2300113
JournalAdvanced Quantum Technologies
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Oct

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Mathematical Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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