Physical processes in the quantum regime possess non-classical properties of quantum mechanics. However, methods for quantitatively identifying such processes are still lacking. Accordingly, in this study, we develop a framework for characterizing and quantifying the ability of processes to cause quantum-mechanical effects on physical systems. We start by introducing a new concept, referred to as quantum process capability, to evaluate the effects of an experimental process upon a prescribed quantum specification. Various methods are then introduced for measuring such a capability. It is shown that the methods are adapted to quantum process tomography for implementation of process capability measure and applicable to all physical processes that can be described using the general theory of quantum operations. The utility of the proposed framework is demonstrated through several examples, including processes of entanglement, coherence, and superposition. The formalism proposed in this study provides a generic approach for the identification of dynamical processes in quantum mechanics and facilitates the general classification of quantum-information processing.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes