Mastocytosis is a rare disease characterized by an abnormal increase of mast cells in tissues. We report a case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;21) and mast cell leukemia (MCL) in which the mastocytosis persisted after standard chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation, although the myeloid leukemia achieved molecular complete remission soon after induction chemotherapy. Donor-type mast cells were noted on d31 after transplant. No c-kit mutation was found before or after the transplant. This represents the first reported case in which rapid engraftment of mast cells of donor origin was documented. Thus, the possibility that the mast cell originates from a common myeloid precursor cell may be questioned and a reactive process should be considered in some cases of systemic mastocytosis.
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