Reaction Pathways and Kinetics of a Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (BMAA) during Chlorination

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Abstract

β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a probable cause of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC), or Alzheimer's disease, has been identified in more than 20 cyanobacterial genera. However, its removal and fate in drinking water has never been reported before. In this study, the reaction of BMAA with chlorine, a common drinking-water oxidant/disinfectant, was investigated. A liquid chromatograph coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was employed to quantify BMAA and its intermediates. Upon chlorination, four chlorinated intermediates, each with one or two chlorines, were identified. The disappearance of BMAA caused by chlorine follows a second-order reaction, with the rate constant k1 is 5.0 × 104 M-1 s-1 at pH ∼7.0. The chlorinated intermediates were found to further react with free chlorine, exhibiting a second-order rate constant k3 = 16.8 M-1 s-1. After all free chlorine was consumed, the chlorinated intermediates autodecomposed slowly with a first order rate constant k2 = 0.003 min-1 when a reductant was added, these chlorinated intermediates were then reduced back to BMAA. The results as described shed a useful light on the reactivity, appearance, and removal of BMAA in the chlorination process of a drinking-water system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1303-1311
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume51
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Feb 7

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Chlorination
Chlorine
Neurotoxins
chlorination
Alanine
chlorine
kinetics
Kinetics
Drinking Water
Rate constants
drinking water
Disinfectants
Reducing Agents
Mass spectrometers
Oxidants
oxidant
spectrometer
liquid
Liquids
rate

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

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title = "Reaction Pathways and Kinetics of a Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (BMAA) during Chlorination",
abstract = "β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a probable cause of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC), or Alzheimer's disease, has been identified in more than 20 cyanobacterial genera. However, its removal and fate in drinking water has never been reported before. In this study, the reaction of BMAA with chlorine, a common drinking-water oxidant/disinfectant, was investigated. A liquid chromatograph coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was employed to quantify BMAA and its intermediates. Upon chlorination, four chlorinated intermediates, each with one or two chlorines, were identified. The disappearance of BMAA caused by chlorine follows a second-order reaction, with the rate constant k1 is 5.0 × 104 M-1 s-1 at pH ∼7.0. The chlorinated intermediates were found to further react with free chlorine, exhibiting a second-order rate constant k3 = 16.8 M-1 s-1. After all free chlorine was consumed, the chlorinated intermediates autodecomposed slowly with a first order rate constant k2 = 0.003 min-1 when a reductant was added, these chlorinated intermediates were then reduced back to BMAA. The results as described shed a useful light on the reactivity, appearance, and removal of BMAA in the chlorination process of a drinking-water system.",
author = "Chen, {Yi Ting} and Chen, {Wan Ru} and Liu, {Zhi Quan} and Lin, {Tsair Fuh}",
year = "2017",
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T1 - Reaction Pathways and Kinetics of a Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (BMAA) during Chlorination

AU - Chen, Yi Ting

AU - Chen, Wan Ru

AU - Liu, Zhi Quan

AU - Lin, Tsair Fuh

PY - 2017/2/7

Y1 - 2017/2/7

N2 - β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a probable cause of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC), or Alzheimer's disease, has been identified in more than 20 cyanobacterial genera. However, its removal and fate in drinking water has never been reported before. In this study, the reaction of BMAA with chlorine, a common drinking-water oxidant/disinfectant, was investigated. A liquid chromatograph coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was employed to quantify BMAA and its intermediates. Upon chlorination, four chlorinated intermediates, each with one or two chlorines, were identified. The disappearance of BMAA caused by chlorine follows a second-order reaction, with the rate constant k1 is 5.0 × 104 M-1 s-1 at pH ∼7.0. The chlorinated intermediates were found to further react with free chlorine, exhibiting a second-order rate constant k3 = 16.8 M-1 s-1. After all free chlorine was consumed, the chlorinated intermediates autodecomposed slowly with a first order rate constant k2 = 0.003 min-1 when a reductant was added, these chlorinated intermediates were then reduced back to BMAA. The results as described shed a useful light on the reactivity, appearance, and removal of BMAA in the chlorination process of a drinking-water system.

AB - β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a probable cause of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC), or Alzheimer's disease, has been identified in more than 20 cyanobacterial genera. However, its removal and fate in drinking water has never been reported before. In this study, the reaction of BMAA with chlorine, a common drinking-water oxidant/disinfectant, was investigated. A liquid chromatograph coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was employed to quantify BMAA and its intermediates. Upon chlorination, four chlorinated intermediates, each with one or two chlorines, were identified. The disappearance of BMAA caused by chlorine follows a second-order reaction, with the rate constant k1 is 5.0 × 104 M-1 s-1 at pH ∼7.0. The chlorinated intermediates were found to further react with free chlorine, exhibiting a second-order rate constant k3 = 16.8 M-1 s-1. After all free chlorine was consumed, the chlorinated intermediates autodecomposed slowly with a first order rate constant k2 = 0.003 min-1 when a reductant was added, these chlorinated intermediates were then reduced back to BMAA. The results as described shed a useful light on the reactivity, appearance, and removal of BMAA in the chlorination process of a drinking-water system.

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