Real-time electrochemical recording of dopamine release under optogenetic stimulation

Wen Tai Chiu, Che Ming Lin, Tien Chun Tsai, Chun Wei Wu, Ching Lin Tsai, Sheng Hsiang Lin, Jia Jin Jason Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Dopaminergic PC12 cells can synthesize and release dopamine, providing a good cellular model for investigating dopamine regulation. Optogenetic stimulation of channelrhodopsin-2 provides high spatial and temporal precision for selective stimulation as a powerful neuromodulation tool for neuroscience studies. The aim of this study is to measure dopamine release from dopaminergic PC12 cells under optogenetic stimulation using electrochemical recording of self-assembled monolayers modified microelectrode with amperometric measurement in real time. The activation of PC12 cells under various optogenetic stimulation schemes are characterized by measuring single-cell Ca2+ imaging. After 10 seconds of optogenetic stimulation, the evoked intracellular Ca 2+ level and dopamine current of channelrhodopsin-2-transfected PC12 cells were 1.6- and 3.5-fold higher than those of the control cells. The optogenetic stimulation effects on Ca2+ influx and dopamine release were 81% and 63% inhibition by using a Ca2+ channel antagonist Nifedipine. The results indicate that optogenetic stimulation can evoke voltage-gated Ca2+ channel-dependent dopamine exocytosis from PC12 cells in a cell specific, temporally precise and dose-dependent manner. This proposed dopamine recording system can be developed to be a good cell model for dopamine regulation and drug screening in vitro, or dopaminergic cell implantation therapy in vivo using optogenetic stimulation in a precise and convenient way.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere89293
JournalPloS one
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Feb 20

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General


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