Swine wastewater is categorized as one of the agricultural wastewater with high contents of organics and nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorus, which may lead to eutrophication in the environment. Insufficient technologies to remove those nutrients could lead to environmental problems after discharge. Several physical and chemical methods have been applied to treat the swine wastewater, but biological treatments are considered as the promising methods due to the cost effectiveness and performance efficiency along with the production of valuable products and bioenergies. This review summarizes the characteristics of swine wastewaters in the beginning, and briefly describes the current issues on the treatments of swine wastewaters. Several biological techniques, such as anaerobic digestion, A/O process, microbial fuel cells, and microalgae cultivations, and their future aspects will be addressed. Finally, the potentials to reutilize biomass produced during the treatment processes are also presented under the consideration of circular economy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal