Excess carbon footprint is one of the major environmental issues of this decade. Microalgae have emerged as promising biomass feedstock for carbon-neutral fuels as a replacement of fossil-based fuels. Algal biofuels could overcome the shortcomings of first- and second-generation biofuels, mainly completion with food/cash crops and high cost of raw materials. Since the selection of microalgae strain is crucial for product quality, this review provides comprehensive information about the general characteristics of microalgae based on their taxonomic classification. Recent advances in the development of algae biofuels from upstream cultivation to downstream processing are presented. Downstream processing of algae is analysed by providing a deep insight into the techniques applied for biomass pre-treatment, cell disruption, lipid extraction, and product fractionation. The integration of waste bioremediation and biofuels production is also discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Environmental Engineering
- Waste Management and Disposal