Reclaimed water in Taiwan: current status and future prospects

Hai Hsuan Cheng, Wan Sheng Yu, Shu Chuang Tseng, Yi Ju Wu, Ching Lin Hsieh, Shi Shuan Lin, Ching Ping Chu, Yu De Huang, Wan Ru Chen, Tsair Fuh Lin, Liang Ming Whang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


According to the Taiwan Water Resources Agency, Ministry of Economic Affairs, the average water demand shortage is 530.6 million m3 yr−1 during the period of 2011 to 2019, and the situation will worsen in the near future due to global climate change. Therefore, reclaimed water has been an important new water source in Taiwan, particularly for industrial consumers such as high-tech industries in Science Parks. In order to meet the targeted reclaimed water supply of 1.32 million m3 d−1 (CMD) in 2031, Taiwan is focusing on two major reclaimed water sources, including reclaimed water from high water-consuming industries and municipal wastewater treatment plants. This report reviews current technologies used for reclaimed water including units for pretreatment, desalting, polishing, and reclamation. Case studies in Taiwan including reclaimed water from high water-consuming industries such as thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) and semiconductor industries, as well as from municipal wastewater treatment plants are presented. The TFT-LCD company Innolux and semiconductor company Advaned Semiconductor Engineering have implemented total recycled water system to recycle and reclaim wastewater from manufacturing processes, achieving a total recycled water of 290 million m3 yr−1 with about 97% recovery and 3.5 million m3 yr−1 with 80% recovery, respectively. The Fengshan reclaimed water treatment plant produces 40,436 CMD reclaimed water from municipal wastewater for the China Steel Cooperation’s steel-making processes, at an overall operation and maintenance cost of 11.5 NT dollars m−3. Meanwhile the Yongkang plant produces 15,500 CMD of reclaimed water for semiconductor and TFT-LCD manufacturing processes at an overall operation and maintenance costs of 25.8 NT dollars m−3, which is due to low urea and boron limits requested by the user. Finally, challenges and future prospects for promoting the use of reclaimed water to meet the targeted supply in 2031 will be discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16
JournalSustainable Environment Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Dec

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


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