We calculate the gauge-invariant cumulants (and moments) associated with the Zak phase in the Rice-Mele model. We reconstruct the underlying probability distribution by maximizing the information entropy and applying the moments as constraints. When the Wannier functions are localized within one unit cell, the probability distribution so obtained corresponds to that of the Wannier function. We show that in the fully dimerized limit the magnitudes of the moments are all equal. In this limit, if the on-site interaction is decreased towards zero, the distribution shifts towards the midpoint of the unit cell, but the overall shape of the distribution remains the same. Away from this limit, if alternate hoppings are finite and the on-site interaction is decreased, the distribution also shifts towards the midpoint of the unit cell, but it does this by changing shape, by becoming asymmetric around the maximum, and by shifting. We also follow the probability distribution of the polarization in cycles around the topologically nontrivial point of the model. The distribution moves across to the next unit cell, its shape distorting considerably in the process. If the radius of the cycle is large, the shift of the distribution is accompanied by large variations in the maximum.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics