CTP synthase (CTPsyn) plays an essential role in DNA, RNA, and lipid synthesis. Recent studies in bacteria, yeast, and Drosophila all reveal a polymeric CTPsyn structure, which dynamically regulates its enzymatic activity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the formation of CTPsyn polymers is not completely understood. In this study, we found that reversible ubiquitination regulates the dynamic assembly of the filamentous structures of Drosophila CTPsyn. We further determined that the proto-oncogene Cbl, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, controls CTPsyn filament formation in endocycles. While the E3 ligase activity of Cbl is required for CTPsyn filament formation, Cbl does not affect the protein levels of CTPsyn. It remains unclear whether the regulation of CTPsyn filaments by Cbl is through direct ubiquitination of CTPsyn. In the absence of Cbl or with knockdown of CTPsyn, the progression of the endocycle-associated S phase was impaired. Furthermore, overexpression of wild-type, but not enzymatically inactive CTPsyn, rescued the endocycle defect in Cbl mutant cells. Together, these results suggest that Cbl influences the nucleotide pool balance and controls CTPsyn filament formation in endocycles. This study links Cbl-mediated ubiquitination to the polymerization of a metabolic enzyme and reveals a role for Cbl in endocycles during Drosophila development.
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