Residual stress analysis and bow simulation of crystalline silicon solar cells

Chih Hung Chen, Hsuan Teh Hu, Fu Ming Lin, Hsin Hsin Hsieh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The pressure to reduce solar energy costs encourages efforts to reduce the thickness of silicon wafers. Thus, the cell bowing problem associated with the use of thin wafers has become increasingly important, as it can lead to the cracking of cells and thus to high yield losses. In this paper, a systematic approach for simulating the cell bowing induced by the firing process is presented. This approach consists of three processes: (1) the material properties are determined using a nanoidentation test; (2) the thicknesses of aluminum (Al) paste and silver (Ag) busbars and fingers are measured using scanning electron microscopy; (3) non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) is used for simulating the cell bowing induced by the firing process. As a result, the bowing obtained using FEA simulation agrees better with the experimental data than that using the bowing calculations suggested in literature. In addition, the total in-plane residual stress state in the wafer/cell due to the firing process can be determined using the FEA simulation. A detailed analysis of the firing-induced stress state in single crystalline silicon (sc-Si), cast, and edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) multi-crystalline silicon wafers of different thicknesses is presented. Based on this analysis, a simple residual stress calculation is developed to estimate the maximum in-plane principal stress in the wafers. It is also proposed that the metallization pattern, Ag busbars and fingers screen printed on the front of a solar cell, can be designed using this approach. A practical case of a 3-busbar Si solar cell is presented.

LanguageEnglish
Pages49-58
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Zhejiang University: Science A
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2017 Jan 1

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Bending (forming)
Silicon solar cells
Stress analysis
Residual stresses
Busbars
Crystalline materials
Silicon wafers
Finite element method
Solar cells
Metallizing
Solar energy
Materials properties
Silver
Aluminum
Silicon
Scanning electron microscopy
Costs

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Engineering(all)

Cite this

Chen, Chih Hung ; Hu, Hsuan Teh ; Lin, Fu Ming ; Hsieh, Hsin Hsin. / Residual stress analysis and bow simulation of crystalline silicon solar cells. In: Journal of Zhejiang University: Science A. 2017 ; Vol. 18, No. 1. pp. 49-58
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Residual stress analysis and bow simulation of crystalline silicon solar cells. / Chen, Chih Hung; Hu, Hsuan Teh; Lin, Fu Ming; Hsieh, Hsin Hsin.

In: Journal of Zhejiang University: Science A, Vol. 18, No. 1, 01.01.2017, p. 49-58.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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