The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has become a valuable resource as a remote sensing technique. In the past decade, the use of reflected GNSS signals for sensing the Earth, also known as GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R), has grown rapidly. On the other hand, with the continuous development of GNSS, multi-frequency multi-modulation signals have been used to enhance not only positioning performance, but also remote sensing applications. It is known that for some constellations, navigation satellites broadcast signals employing BPSK (binary phase-shift keying) modulation and BOC (binary offset carrier) modulation at the same frequency band. This paper proposes a new GNSS-R measurement, called a composite delay-Doppler map (cDDM), by utilizing the received reflected GNSS signals with different modulation techniques for the purpose of retrieving wind speed. The GNSS-R receiver can receive BPSK and BOC signals simultaneously at the same frequency band (e.g., GPS III L1 C/A and L1C or QZSS L1 C/A and L1C) and process the signals to generate GNSS-R measurements. Exploration of the observable features extracted from the composite DDM and the wind speed retrieval algorithm are also provided. The simulation verifies the proposed method under a configuration that is specified for the orbital and instrument specification of the upcoming TRITON mission.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)