Review of research on technology-supported cross-cultural learning

Rustam Shadiev, Xueying Wang, Ting Ting Wu, Yueh Min Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Not many review studies have explored the theoretical foundation of cross-cultural learning or the curricula in the research they were reviewing. Furthermore, some review studies only superficially discussed the methodology and findings of the reviewed articles. To address these issues, we reviewed twenty-three studies on technology-supported cross-cultural learning published between 2014 and 2020. We aimed to summarize and analyze previous research in the following areas: (1) theoretical foundation, (2) curricula, (3) technologies, and (4) methodology and findings. Our results showed that the reviewed studies built their research framework based on diverse theoretical foundations; however, the most frequently used models were Byram’s model and the cultural convergence theory. Curricula had the following main focuses: (a) cross-cultural learning, (b) linguistic skills, and (c) pre-service teacher training. The most frequently used technologies were Skype, e-mail, and blogs. We found that most reviewed studies involved the collection of both qualitative and quantitative data. Finally, most of the reviewed studies reported on the role of technologies in facilitating cross-cultural learning, FL/SL learning, and pre-service teacher training. Based on our findings, several implications along with suggestions were prepared. Our findings demonstrated that results from most studies were positive regarding technological support of cross-cultural learning. Therefore, it is suggested that educators and researchers take these results into consideration when designing future studies on cross-cultural learning. Because many scholars did not report some important information, such as what theoretical foundation they built studies on or participants’ demographics, we suggest that such information needs to be included in their research articles as it can be helpful in informing future studies. We also suggest that participants in future studies use variety of technological tools for supporting communication and content creation during cross-cultural learning.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1402
Pages (from-to)1-23
Number of pages23
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Feb 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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