Revisiting oceanic elves and lightning occurrence rate during El Niño and la Nina episodes in a 10-year time frame

Yen Jung Wu, Rue-Ron Hsu, Bing-Chih Chen, Han-Tzong Su, Shu Chun Chang, Jung Kuang Chou, Yi Jen Lee, Kang Ming Peng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The Imager of Sprite and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) on board the Taiwanese satellite Formosat-2 has accomplished the first decade operating in the orbit. A comprehensive method defining the standardized anomaly of elve occurrence rate by limb-viewed observation is demonstrated. We revisit the occurrence of elves during El Niño and La Nina and extend the time series analysis to November 2015. The variation of the enhanced anomaly of elve occurrence density (AEOD) follows the change of sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in SSTA-horseshoe, SSTA-Pacific and SSTA-Indian Ocean during the warm and cold phases, whereas the variation of the anomaly of lightning flash density (ALFD) is rather ambiguous. The correlation of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) with the Elve Anomaly Index (EAI) remains significant in Tahiti, while the best correlation between SOI and elves is found in the western/central Pacific Ocean with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.7. In the Indian Ocean, the correlation in the 10-year time frame is moderate, but the relation is obvious during the transition phase between a strong El Niño and the following La Nina, in the region where the synoptic circulation is affected. The weaker convection available potential energy (CAPE) in the upwelling region of the synoptic circulation provides an environment conducive to the development of elve-producing thunderstorms. This work substantiates the relation between elves/lightning and ENSO in a longer10-year time frame that elves are more sensitive than lightning to ENSO and the variation of the synoptic circulation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTerrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences
Volume28
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Aug 1

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La Nina
lightning
temperature anomaly
sea surface temperature
anomaly
Southern Oscillation
El Nino-Southern Oscillation
sprite
time series analysis
thunderstorm
phase transition
potential energy
limb
upwelling
convection
rate
ocean
index
Indian Ocean

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oceanography
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)

Cite this

@article{4ddc7a3a0d9a433b80a4b37664238bd3,
title = "Revisiting oceanic elves and lightning occurrence rate during El Ni{\~n}o and la Nina episodes in a 10-year time frame",
abstract = "The Imager of Sprite and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) on board the Taiwanese satellite Formosat-2 has accomplished the first decade operating in the orbit. A comprehensive method defining the standardized anomaly of elve occurrence rate by limb-viewed observation is demonstrated. We revisit the occurrence of elves during El Ni{\~n}o and La Nina and extend the time series analysis to November 2015. The variation of the enhanced anomaly of elve occurrence density (AEOD) follows the change of sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in SSTA-horseshoe, SSTA-Pacific and SSTA-Indian Ocean during the warm and cold phases, whereas the variation of the anomaly of lightning flash density (ALFD) is rather ambiguous. The correlation of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) with the Elve Anomaly Index (EAI) remains significant in Tahiti, while the best correlation between SOI and elves is found in the western/central Pacific Ocean with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.7. In the Indian Ocean, the correlation in the 10-year time frame is moderate, but the relation is obvious during the transition phase between a strong El Ni{\~n}o and the following La Nina, in the region where the synoptic circulation is affected. The weaker convection available potential energy (CAPE) in the upwelling region of the synoptic circulation provides an environment conducive to the development of elve-producing thunderstorms. This work substantiates the relation between elves/lightning and ENSO in a longer10-year time frame that elves are more sensitive than lightning to ENSO and the variation of the synoptic circulation.",
author = "Wu, {Yen Jung} and Rue-Ron Hsu and Bing-Chih Chen and Han-Tzong Su and Chang, {Shu Chun} and Chou, {Jung Kuang} and Lee, {Yi Jen} and Peng, {Kang Ming}",
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Revisiting oceanic elves and lightning occurrence rate during El Niño and la Nina episodes in a 10-year time frame. / Wu, Yen Jung; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Chen, Bing-Chih; Su, Han-Tzong; Chang, Shu Chun; Chou, Jung Kuang; Lee, Yi Jen; Peng, Kang Ming.

In: Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Vol. 28, No. 4, 01.08.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Revisiting oceanic elves and lightning occurrence rate during El Niño and la Nina episodes in a 10-year time frame

AU - Wu, Yen Jung

AU - Hsu, Rue-Ron

AU - Chen, Bing-Chih

AU - Su, Han-Tzong

AU - Chang, Shu Chun

AU - Chou, Jung Kuang

AU - Lee, Yi Jen

AU - Peng, Kang Ming

PY - 2017/8/1

Y1 - 2017/8/1

N2 - The Imager of Sprite and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) on board the Taiwanese satellite Formosat-2 has accomplished the first decade operating in the orbit. A comprehensive method defining the standardized anomaly of elve occurrence rate by limb-viewed observation is demonstrated. We revisit the occurrence of elves during El Niño and La Nina and extend the time series analysis to November 2015. The variation of the enhanced anomaly of elve occurrence density (AEOD) follows the change of sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in SSTA-horseshoe, SSTA-Pacific and SSTA-Indian Ocean during the warm and cold phases, whereas the variation of the anomaly of lightning flash density (ALFD) is rather ambiguous. The correlation of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) with the Elve Anomaly Index (EAI) remains significant in Tahiti, while the best correlation between SOI and elves is found in the western/central Pacific Ocean with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.7. In the Indian Ocean, the correlation in the 10-year time frame is moderate, but the relation is obvious during the transition phase between a strong El Niño and the following La Nina, in the region where the synoptic circulation is affected. The weaker convection available potential energy (CAPE) in the upwelling region of the synoptic circulation provides an environment conducive to the development of elve-producing thunderstorms. This work substantiates the relation between elves/lightning and ENSO in a longer10-year time frame that elves are more sensitive than lightning to ENSO and the variation of the synoptic circulation.

AB - The Imager of Sprite and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) on board the Taiwanese satellite Formosat-2 has accomplished the first decade operating in the orbit. A comprehensive method defining the standardized anomaly of elve occurrence rate by limb-viewed observation is demonstrated. We revisit the occurrence of elves during El Niño and La Nina and extend the time series analysis to November 2015. The variation of the enhanced anomaly of elve occurrence density (AEOD) follows the change of sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in SSTA-horseshoe, SSTA-Pacific and SSTA-Indian Ocean during the warm and cold phases, whereas the variation of the anomaly of lightning flash density (ALFD) is rather ambiguous. The correlation of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) with the Elve Anomaly Index (EAI) remains significant in Tahiti, while the best correlation between SOI and elves is found in the western/central Pacific Ocean with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.7. In the Indian Ocean, the correlation in the 10-year time frame is moderate, but the relation is obvious during the transition phase between a strong El Niño and the following La Nina, in the region where the synoptic circulation is affected. The weaker convection available potential energy (CAPE) in the upwelling region of the synoptic circulation provides an environment conducive to the development of elve-producing thunderstorms. This work substantiates the relation between elves/lightning and ENSO in a longer10-year time frame that elves are more sensitive than lightning to ENSO and the variation of the synoptic circulation.

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