Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), a late complication of pulmonary embolism (PE), is associated with high mortality. However, whether the right ventricular (RV) echocardiographic parameters can predict - in the short- and long-term - the development of CTEPH and mortality after PE remains unknown. Herein, we aim to investigate the incidence of CTEPH after acute PE and to evaluate the risk factors of CTEPH. In this retrospective cohort, patients with PE were followed for 10 years for the onset of CTEPH. The screening was initially conducted through echocardiography and confirmed by right heart catheterization. Also, transient and permanent risk factors were identified. Among 358 patients with PE, 8 patients (4%) were subsequently diagnosed with CTEPH at a median time of 36 months and 47 died during the follow-up period. Notably, both short- and long-term RV dilatation, hypertrophy, and increased pulmonary pressure increased the incidence of CTEPH. However, RV echocardiographic parameters failed to differentiate survivors from non-survivors. Instead, malignancy, respiratory, or chronic heart failure was strongly associated with post PE mortality in the multivariable analysis. According to our findings, post PE screening of CTEPH may facilitate early diagnosis and intervention for patients at high risk of developing CTEPH. Also, RV echocardiographic parameters are associated with subsequent CTEPH, but mortality is mainly dependent on underlying comorbidities.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes