Background: The emergence of carbapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CnSE) infections is a public health threat. This study investigated the risk factors and clinical impact of bacteremia due to CnSE. Material and methods: The study was conducted at three hospitals in southern Taiwan between January 1, 2017, and October 31, 2019. Only the first episode of CnSE bacteremia from each adult was included. For one episode of CnSE bacteremia, two subsequent bacteremic episodes due to carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates in each hospital were included as the controls. Results: Among a total of 641 episodes of monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia were noted, 47 (7.3%) of which were of CnSE bacteremia. Ninety-four episodes of carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CSE) bacteremia were selected as the controls for further analyses. In the multivariate analysis, hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 4.21; P = 0.005), Pitt bacteremia score (OR, 1.61; P = 0.002), and nosocomial bacteremia (OR, 3.30; P = 0.01) were associated with carbapenem nonsusceptibility among Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia. The most abundant CnSE isolate was Klebsiella pneumoniae (91.5%), followed by Klebsiella oxytoca (6.4%) and Escherichia coli (2.1%). Patients with CnSE bacteremia had a higher overall in-hospital mortality rate than those with CSE bacteremia (53.2% vs. 23.4%, P = 0.001). Moreover, in the multivariate analysis, the in-hospital mortality was significantly associated with higher Pitt bacteremia score (OR, 1.38; P = 0.02) and marginally associated with CnSE infections (OR, 2.44; P = 0.06). Conclusion: Among adults with Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia, carbapenem nonsusceptibility, male sex, and the presence of hypertension or chronic kidney disease indicate a poor prognosis during hospitalization.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases