Risk factors of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in hospitalized adults: Vary by hospitalized duration

Yuan Pin Hung, Jen Chieh Lee, Bo Yang Tsai, Jia Ling Wu, Hsiao Chieh Liu, Hsiu Chuan Liu, Hsiao Ju Lin, Pei Jane Tsai, Wen Chien Ko

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22 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. Hospitalized patients were at risk of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). However the risk factors of CDAD in patients with different hospitalization period are not clear. Material and methods: A prospective investigation was conducted in medical wards of a district hospital in southern Taiwan, from January 2011 to January 2013. We arbitrary divided patients into two groups: hospitalized for at most 14 days and 15–30 days, and analyzed their risk factors for CDAD. Results: Overall 451 patients were enrolled. The multivariable analysis of 19 (8.0%) patients developing CDAD within 14 days' hospital stay and 216 patients hospitalized for ≤ 14 days without CDAD showed malignancy (odds ratio [OR] 7.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.82–28.09; P = 0.005), prior cephalosporin (OR 10.8, 95% CI 1.3–93.9; P = 0.03) and proton pump inhibitor (PPI; OR 7.1, 95% CI 2.1–24.7; P = 0.002) therapy were independently related to CDAD (Table 3), but hypertension (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1–0.7; P = 0.01) was reversely related to CDAD. However, of 9 (4.2%) patients developing CDAD later (15–30 days' hospital stay) and 207 patients with longer hospitalization (15–30 days) but free of CDAD, malignancy (OR 14.0, 95% CI 1.6–124.9; P = 0.02) and underlying diabetes mellitus (OR 20.5, 95% CI 2.9–144.9; P = 0.002) were independent risk factors of CDAD. Conclusion: Risk factors for CDAD among hospitalized patients varied by the duration of hospital stay. Intervention strategies to prevent CDAD may be different in terms of hospital stay duration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)276-283
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Apr

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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