Previous studies have shown that the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)infected patients with long-term exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, the factors associated with DM among HIV-infected patients in Asia remain unclear in the HAART era. A nationwide cohort study Data from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) between 2000 and 2010 were used to investigate the incidence of and factors associated with DM among HIV-infected patients. Propensity score matching was conducted to match 4797 patients receiving HAART (HAART cohort) with 4797 patients not receiving HAART (non-HAART cohort). HAART use was treated as a time-dependent variable in a Cox regression model. HAART cohort had a significantly higher 10-year incidence of DM (7.16%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.30%–10.03%) than non-HAART cohort (2.24%; 95% CI, 1.28%–3.20%) (P < .001). After adjusting for age, gender, and comorbidities, receiving HAART was associated with an increased incidence of DM, with a subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) of 2.39 (95% CI, 1.65–3.45). Hypertension (sHR = 5.27; 95% CI, 3.21–8.65), gout (sHR = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.38–4.16), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (sHR = 2.43; 95% CI, 1.28–4.61) were significantly associated with a higher risk of DM. Sensitivity analyses showed exposure to HAART remained significantly associated with an increased risk of DM, particularly in those without pre-existing hypertension, gout, or HCV infection. Exposure to HAART increased the risk of DM in HIV-infected Taiwanese patients, particularly in those without pre-existing hypertension, gout, or HCV infection.
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