Background: How sex and age influence post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) outcomes remains unclear. This study evaluated the influence of sex and age on drug therapy, echocardiographic parameters, and outcomes in post-MI patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 643 patients with first acute MI who underwent successful PCI and two echocardiographic examinations within 1 year after MI. Clinical characteristics and 4-year follow-up outcomes were compared between sexes and age groups. Primary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization for heart failure (HF). Results: Compared with males, female patients with MI, particularly older females, had more systemic diseases. Younger females received fewer guideline-directed therapies. Older patients presented with higher left ventricular volume and mass index but no significant differences in left ventricular ejection fraction. The Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed increased mortality in both younger and older females. Elderly patients, particularly older females, exhibited significantly higher post-MI HF incidence but no difference in recurrent MI, ventricular arrhythmia, or revascularization. Conclusions: In MI patients receiving PCI, outcome differences between sexes are age-dependent. Age influences outcome more heavily in females than in males. Females are likely to exhibit worse overall survival, and older females are at higher risk of post-MI HF.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine