Roles of the screw types, proximity and anterior band wiring in the surgical fixation of transverse patellar fractures

A finite element investigation

Chih Hsien Chen, Yen Nien Chen, Chun Ting Li, Chih-Wei Chang, Chih-Han Chang, Yao Te Peng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Cannulated screws with an anterior wire are currently used for managing transverse patellar fracture. However, the addition of anterior wiring with various types of screws via open surgery to increase the mechanical stability is yet to be determined. Hence, this study aimed to compare the mechanical behaviors of a fractured patella fixed with various screws types and at various screw locations with and without the anterior wire. The present study hypothesized that using the anterior wire reduces the fracture gap formation. Methods: A finite element (FE) model containing a fractured patella fixed with various types of cannulated screws and anterior wiring was created in this study. Three types of screws, namely partial thread, full thread, and headless compression screws, and two screw depths, namely 5 and 10 mm away from the anterior surface of the patella, were included. The effect of the anterior wire was clarified by comparing the results of surgical fixation with and without the wire. Two magnitudes and two loading directions were used to simulate and examine the mechanical responses of the fractured patella with various fixation conditions during knee flexion/extension. Results: Compared with partial thread and headless compression screws, the full thread screw increased the stability of the fractured patella by reducing fragment displacement, fracture gap formation, and contact pressure while increasing the contact area at the fracture site. Under 400-N in the direction 45°, the full thread screw with 5-mm placement reduced the gap formation by 86.7% (from 2.71 to 0.36 mm) and 55.6% (from 0. 81 to 0. 36 mm) compared with the partial thread screw with 10-mm placement, respectively without and with the anterior wire. Conclusion: The anterior wire along with the full thread screw is preferentially recommended for maintaining the surgical fixation of the fractured patella. Without the use of anterior wiring, the full thread screw with 5-mm placement may be considered as a less invasive alternative; however, simple screw fixation at a deeper placement (10 mm) is least recommended for the fixation of transverse patellar fracture.

Original languageEnglish
Article number99
JournalBMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Mar 4

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Patella
Knee
Pressure

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Rheumatology
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

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title = "Roles of the screw types, proximity and anterior band wiring in the surgical fixation of transverse patellar fractures: A finite element investigation",
abstract = "Background: Cannulated screws with an anterior wire are currently used for managing transverse patellar fracture. However, the addition of anterior wiring with various types of screws via open surgery to increase the mechanical stability is yet to be determined. Hence, this study aimed to compare the mechanical behaviors of a fractured patella fixed with various screws types and at various screw locations with and without the anterior wire. The present study hypothesized that using the anterior wire reduces the fracture gap formation. Methods: A finite element (FE) model containing a fractured patella fixed with various types of cannulated screws and anterior wiring was created in this study. Three types of screws, namely partial thread, full thread, and headless compression screws, and two screw depths, namely 5 and 10 mm away from the anterior surface of the patella, were included. The effect of the anterior wire was clarified by comparing the results of surgical fixation with and without the wire. Two magnitudes and two loading directions were used to simulate and examine the mechanical responses of the fractured patella with various fixation conditions during knee flexion/extension. Results: Compared with partial thread and headless compression screws, the full thread screw increased the stability of the fractured patella by reducing fragment displacement, fracture gap formation, and contact pressure while increasing the contact area at the fracture site. Under 400-N in the direction 45°, the full thread screw with 5-mm placement reduced the gap formation by 86.7{\%} (from 2.71 to 0.36 mm) and 55.6{\%} (from 0. 81 to 0. 36 mm) compared with the partial thread screw with 10-mm placement, respectively without and with the anterior wire. Conclusion: The anterior wire along with the full thread screw is preferentially recommended for maintaining the surgical fixation of the fractured patella. Without the use of anterior wiring, the full thread screw with 5-mm placement may be considered as a less invasive alternative; however, simple screw fixation at a deeper placement (10 mm) is least recommended for the fixation of transverse patellar fracture.",
author = "Chen, {Chih Hsien} and Chen, {Yen Nien} and Li, {Chun Ting} and Chih-Wei Chang and Chih-Han Chang and Peng, {Yao Te}",
year = "2019",
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language = "English",
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Roles of the screw types, proximity and anterior band wiring in the surgical fixation of transverse patellar fractures : A finite element investigation. / Chen, Chih Hsien; Chen, Yen Nien; Li, Chun Ting; Chang, Chih-Wei; Chang, Chih-Han; Peng, Yao Te.

In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, Vol. 20, No. 1, 99, 04.03.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Roles of the screw types, proximity and anterior band wiring in the surgical fixation of transverse patellar fractures

T2 - A finite element investigation

AU - Chen, Chih Hsien

AU - Chen, Yen Nien

AU - Li, Chun Ting

AU - Chang, Chih-Wei

AU - Chang, Chih-Han

AU - Peng, Yao Te

PY - 2019/3/4

Y1 - 2019/3/4

N2 - Background: Cannulated screws with an anterior wire are currently used for managing transverse patellar fracture. However, the addition of anterior wiring with various types of screws via open surgery to increase the mechanical stability is yet to be determined. Hence, this study aimed to compare the mechanical behaviors of a fractured patella fixed with various screws types and at various screw locations with and without the anterior wire. The present study hypothesized that using the anterior wire reduces the fracture gap formation. Methods: A finite element (FE) model containing a fractured patella fixed with various types of cannulated screws and anterior wiring was created in this study. Three types of screws, namely partial thread, full thread, and headless compression screws, and two screw depths, namely 5 and 10 mm away from the anterior surface of the patella, were included. The effect of the anterior wire was clarified by comparing the results of surgical fixation with and without the wire. Two magnitudes and two loading directions were used to simulate and examine the mechanical responses of the fractured patella with various fixation conditions during knee flexion/extension. Results: Compared with partial thread and headless compression screws, the full thread screw increased the stability of the fractured patella by reducing fragment displacement, fracture gap formation, and contact pressure while increasing the contact area at the fracture site. Under 400-N in the direction 45°, the full thread screw with 5-mm placement reduced the gap formation by 86.7% (from 2.71 to 0.36 mm) and 55.6% (from 0. 81 to 0. 36 mm) compared with the partial thread screw with 10-mm placement, respectively without and with the anterior wire. Conclusion: The anterior wire along with the full thread screw is preferentially recommended for maintaining the surgical fixation of the fractured patella. Without the use of anterior wiring, the full thread screw with 5-mm placement may be considered as a less invasive alternative; however, simple screw fixation at a deeper placement (10 mm) is least recommended for the fixation of transverse patellar fracture.

AB - Background: Cannulated screws with an anterior wire are currently used for managing transverse patellar fracture. However, the addition of anterior wiring with various types of screws via open surgery to increase the mechanical stability is yet to be determined. Hence, this study aimed to compare the mechanical behaviors of a fractured patella fixed with various screws types and at various screw locations with and without the anterior wire. The present study hypothesized that using the anterior wire reduces the fracture gap formation. Methods: A finite element (FE) model containing a fractured patella fixed with various types of cannulated screws and anterior wiring was created in this study. Three types of screws, namely partial thread, full thread, and headless compression screws, and two screw depths, namely 5 and 10 mm away from the anterior surface of the patella, were included. The effect of the anterior wire was clarified by comparing the results of surgical fixation with and without the wire. Two magnitudes and two loading directions were used to simulate and examine the mechanical responses of the fractured patella with various fixation conditions during knee flexion/extension. Results: Compared with partial thread and headless compression screws, the full thread screw increased the stability of the fractured patella by reducing fragment displacement, fracture gap formation, and contact pressure while increasing the contact area at the fracture site. Under 400-N in the direction 45°, the full thread screw with 5-mm placement reduced the gap formation by 86.7% (from 2.71 to 0.36 mm) and 55.6% (from 0. 81 to 0. 36 mm) compared with the partial thread screw with 10-mm placement, respectively without and with the anterior wire. Conclusion: The anterior wire along with the full thread screw is preferentially recommended for maintaining the surgical fixation of the fractured patella. Without the use of anterior wiring, the full thread screw with 5-mm placement may be considered as a less invasive alternative; however, simple screw fixation at a deeper placement (10 mm) is least recommended for the fixation of transverse patellar fracture.

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