RRAM defect modeling and failure analysis based on march test and a novel squeeze-search scheme

Ching Yi Chen, Hsiu Chuan Shih, Cheng Wen Wu, Chih He Lin, Pi Feng Chiu, Shyh Shyuan Sheu, Frederick T. Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

123 Citations (Scopus)


The Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) is a new type of non-volatile memory based on the resistive memory device. Researchers are currently moving from resistive device development to memory circuit design and implementation, hoping to fabricate memory chips that can be deployed in the market in the near future. However, so far the low manufacturing yield is still a major issue. In this paper, we propose defect and fault models specific to RRAM, i.e., the Over-Forming (OF) defect and the Read-One-Disturb (R1D) fault. We then propose a March algorithm to cover these defects and faults in addition to the conventional RAM faults, which is called March C∗. We also develop a novel squeeze-search scheme to identify the OF defect, which leads to the Stuck-At Fault (SAF). The proposed test algorithm is applied to a first-cut 4-Mb HfO2-based RRAM test chip. Results show that OF defects and R1D faults do exist in the RRAM chip. We also identify specific failure patterns from the test results, which are shown to be induced by multiple short defects between bit-lines. By identifying the defects and faults, designers and process engineers can improve the RRAM yield in a more cost-effective way.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6725492
Pages (from-to)180-190
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computers
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jan 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Software
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


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