Without the temponade effect over nephrostomy tube, postoperative hemorrhage is a major concern to the safety of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with bleeding tendency. In this study, we would like to report our experience of performing tubeless PCNLs in these patients. At the end of PCNL, we cauterized the bleeding points in access tract for hemostasis to facilitate the achievement of tubeless PCNL. We identified and reviewed 16 patients under antiplatelet agent therapy and 6 patients with liver cirrhosis from 598 tubeless PCNLs performed in a single institute. Among the 16 patients undergoing anti-platelet therapy, the average stone size was 2.8 cm. The average operation time was 84.7 min. The stone-free rate was 87.5%. The average postoperative hospital stay was 3.8 days. Two patients (12.5%) experienced urinary tract infections after operation. There was no uncontrolled hemorrhage during and after operation and only one patient needed postoperative blood transfusion. No patient experienced any thromboembolic complication. Of the six patients with liver cirrhosis, the average stone size was 3.3 cm. The average operation time was 77.5 min. The stone-free rate is 83.4%. The average postoperative hospital stay was 4.0 days. No patient received blood transfusion after operation. There was no patient experiencing urinary tract infection after operation. Our results suggest that with careful hemostasis, tubeless PCNL is a safety modality in the treatment of urinary stone disease in patients on chronic anti-platelet therapy and cirrhotic patients.
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