Seasonal and source characteristics of organophosphorus flame retardants in air and house dust in Taiwan residential microenvironments: Implications for young children's exposure and risk assessment using a probabilistic approach

Quang Oai Lu, Chien-Cheng Jung, Yu Hsuan Liu, Wei Hsiang Chang

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Abstract

Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are prevalent in multiple industries. They have gradually replaced brominated flame retardants in recent years. Eleven OPFRs were collected from indoor air and house dust in two primary activity spaces––bedrooms and living rooms. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential sources of, and health risks associated with, OPFR exposure in young children using integrated and probabilistic approaches. The level of 11 indoor air OPFRs (466 ng/m3) in the bedroom was greater than that measured in the living room (379 ng/m3), and these values contrasted with those detected in dust. The air OPFRs in the warmer season were higher than those measured in the cold season; the inverse was true for those detected in house dust. In both activity spaces, the composition profiles indicated that tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate in indoor air (39%) and tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate in house dust (67%) were the dominant congeners. The average daily exposure dose (ADD) of OPFRs via air inhalation and dust ingestion did not differ significantly between preschool and school-aged children or based on sex. The Monte-Carlo-simulated 95th percentile ADD of the OPFRs in dust ingested by preschool children was 1.4 times higher. The OPFR exposure from air inhalation and dust ingestion in Taiwanese children is currently an acceptable non-carcinogenic risk and a negligible carcinogenic risk to Taiwan residents.

Original languageEnglish
Article number120893
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Volume318
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Feb 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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