Seasonal effects of urban street shading on long-term outdoor thermal comfort

Ruey Lung Hwang, Tzu Ping Lin, Andreas Matzarakis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

188 Citations (Scopus)


As shading, an important factor in urban environments, affects thermal environments and long-term thermal comfort, this study conducted several field experiments to analyze the outdoor thermal conditions on urban streets in central Taiwan. The RayMan model was utilized for predicting long-term thermal comfort using meteorological data for a 10-year period. Analytical results indicate that slightly shaded areas typically have highly frequent hot conditions during summer, particularly at noon. However, highly shaded locations generally have a low physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) during winter. Correlation analysis reveals that thermal comfort is best when a location is shaded during spring, summer, and autumn. During winter, low-shade conditions may contribute to the increase in solar radiation; thus, thermal comfort is improved when a location has little shade in winter. We suggest that a certain shading level is best for urban streets, and trees or shade devices should be used to improve the original thermal environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)863-870
Number of pages8
JournalBuilding and Environment
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Apr

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Building and Construction


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