Secretions from the female gametophyte and their role in spermatozoid induction in Cycas revoluta

Tokushiro Takaso, Yukitoshi Kimoto, John N. Owens, Masumi Kono, Tetsuro Mimura

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10 Citations (Scopus)


In cycads, spermatozoids are released from pollen tubes and swim in fluid toward the archegonia. The source of this fluid was examined using Cycas revoluta Thunb. ovules placed in culture. Dissected female gametophytes just before fertilization produced copious fluid on their upper surface. The fluid first appeared around the archegonial chamber and then on the inside of the archegonial chamber. When this fluid was applied to dry turgid pollen tubes, they discharged spermatozoids 12 h later. The archegonial neck appeared as two semi-spherical swellings, whereas the four neck cells later became visible and they separated in a schizogenous manner. Many globose particles appear on the top of the archegonial neck cells when the fluid is present. The contents of pollen tubes, spermatozoids and surrounding liquid intermingle with the secreted fluid. The female gametophyte differs in ultrastructure during the stages before and after fluid secretion, the latter showing changes suggestive of fluid secretion from the female gametophyte.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-23
Number of pages7
JournalPlant Reproduction
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Mar

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Plant Science
  • Cell Biology


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