Secondary reinforcement has been proven to be effective in increasing the performance of geosynthetic-reinforced soil (GRS) walls under working stress conditions, enabling an eco-friendlier environment. However, the seismic responses of GRS walls with secondary reinforcements are still unclear. In this study, in-depth finite element analyses were used to investigate the seismic responses of GRS walls with secondary reinforcement subjected to earthquake motions. The numerical procedure was first validated using measurements obtained from both a field GRS wall with secondary reinforcement and benchmark large-scale shaking table tests. Then, the validated GRS walls procedure was utilized to explore the effects of secondary reinforcement length and stiffness, the vertical spacing of the primary reinforcement, and wall height on the seismic responses. Based on the study, the following findings can be drawn: (i) the secondary reinforcement length and stiffness under various wall heights and peak ground accelerations (PGAs) have a limited influence on the relative lateral facing displacement and acceleration amplification, however, they can significantly decrease the connection load and the maximum reinforcement load; (ii) increasing the length of the secondary reinforcement is more effective for reducing the connection load and the maximum reinforcement load than increasing the stiffness of the secondary reinforcement; (iii) the effect of secondary reinforcement is more evident for greater wall height, the larger vertical spacing of primary reinforcement, and smaller PGA; and (iv) GRS walls with secondary reinforcement could ease the acceleration amplification. The study has highlighted the salient effect of secondary reinforcement on GRS wall performance under seismic conditions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Process Chemistry and Technology
- Computer Science Applications
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes