Sexually dimorphic gene expression is commonly found in the liver, and many of these genes are linked to different incidences of liver diseases between sexes. However, the mechanism of sexually dimorphic expression is still not fully understood. In this study, a pCAG-eGFP transgenic mouse strain with a specific transgene integration site in the Akr1A1 locus presented male-biased EGFP expression in the liver, and the expression was activated by testosterone during puberty. The integration of the pCAG-eGFP transgene altered the epigenetic regulation of the adjacent chromatin, including increased binding of STAT5b, a sexually dimorphic expression regulator, and the transformation of DNA methylation from hypermethylation into male-biased hypomethylation. Through this de novo sexually dimorphic expression of the transgene, the Akr1A1eGFP mouse provides a useful model to study the mechanisms and the dynamic changes of sexually dimorphic gene expression during either development or pathogenesis of the liver.
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