This study used finite element analysis to simulate the temperature characteristics of a micro polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip. The micro-PCR chip was fabricated on a silicon wafer and Pyrex glass using photolithography, wet etching, and anodic bonding methods. The main goal of this study was to analyze the temperature uniformity and distribution of the micro-PCR chip, the temperature distribution of the DNA sample, and the transient temperature difference between the heater and DNA sample. The finite element analysis results were also confirmed by one-dimensional theoretic analysis. The simulation results were used to improve the thermal cycling time of a rapid micro-PCR system, consisting of a rapid thermal cycling system and a micro-PCR chip. The improved thermal cycles of the rapid μPCR system were verified using serum samples from patients with chronic hepatitis C. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) amplicon of the rapid μPCR system was analyzed by slab gel electrophoresis with DNA marker separation in parallel.