In this letter, we present a theoretical analysis to single-electron pumping operation in a large range of driving frequencies through the time-dependent tunneling barriers controlled by external gate voltages. We show that the single-electron turnstile works at the frequency lower than the characteristic frequency which is determined by the mean average electron tunneling rate. When the driving frequency is greater than the characteristic frequency of electron tunnelings, fractional electron pumping occurs as an effect of quantum coherence tunneling.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)