In reality, the fault detection (or correction) phenomenon and software reliability estimation in the operational phase are different from that in the testing phase. The fault removal continues at a slower rate during the operational phase. In this paper, we will investigate some techniques for software reliability prediction and measurement in the operational phase. We first review how some software reliability growth models (SRGMs) based on Non-homogeneous Poisson processes (NHPPs) can be readily derived based on a unified theory for NHPP models. Under this general framework, we can not only verify some conventional SRGMs but also derive some new SRGMs that can be used for software reliability measurement in the operational phase. That is, based on the unified theory, we can incorporate the concept of multiple changepoints into software reliability modeling. We can formularize and simulate the fault detection process in the operational phase. Some numerical illustrations based on real software failure data are also presented. The experimental results show that the proposed models can easily reflect the possible changes of fault detection process and offer quantitative analysis on software failure behavior in field operation.