Spatial integration framework of solar, wind, and hydropower energy potential in Southeast Asia

Anjar Dimara Sakti, Pitri Rohayani, Nurusshobah Ainul Izzah, Nur Afrizal Toya, Pradita Octoviandiningrum Hadi, Thanti Octavianti, Wendi Harjupa, Rezzy Eko Caraka, Yunho Kim, Ram Avtar, Nattapong Puttanapong, Chao Hung Lin, Ketut Wikantika

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18 Citations (Scopus)


Amid its massive increase in energy demand, Southeast Asia has pledged to increase its use of renewable energy by up to 23% by 2025. Geospatial technology approaches that integrate statistical data, spatial models, earth observation satellite data, and climate modeling can be used to conduct strategic analyses for understanding the potential and efficiency of renewable energy development. This study aims to create the first spatial model of its kind in Southeast Asia to develop multi-renewable energy from solar, wind, and hydropower, further broken down into residential and agricultural areas. The novelty of this study is the development of a new priority model for renewable energy development resulting from the integration of area suitability analysis and the estimation of the amount of potential energy. Areas with high potential power estimations for the combination of the three types of energy are mostly located in northern Southeast Asia. Areas close to the equator, have a lower potential than the northern countries, except for southern regions. Solar photovoltaic (PV) plant construction is the most area-intensive type of energy generation among the considered energy sources, requiring 143,901,600 ha (61.71%), followed by wind (39,618,300 ha; 16.98%); a combination of solar PV and wind (37,302,500 ha; 16%); hydro (7,665,200 ha; 3.28%); a combination of hydro and solar PV (3,792,500 ha; 1.62%); and a combination of hydro and wind (582,700 ha; 0.25%). This study is timely and important because it will inform policies and regional strategies for transitioning to renewable energy, with consideration of the different characteristics present in Southeast Asia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number340
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Dec

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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