Topological insulators (TIs) are an emerging group of materials with new states of quantum matter. Owing to a nontrivial band topology and strong spin-orbit coupling, gapless Dirac surface states protected by time-reversal symmetry are formed, and surface conductions exhibit unusual spin-momentum locking features. As a result, TIs are regarded as one of the most intriguing 2D materials, which arises broad interest among condensed matter physics, material science, nanoelectronics, spintronics, and energy harvesting applications. In this chapter, several important concepts that preceded the discovery of TIs have been discussed, and the roadmap of the topological-bonded quantum Hall trio has been outlined. In addition, an overview has been provided on the progress with regard to the realization of the quantum spin Hall effect in 2D CdTe/HgTe quantum wells, the extension of TIs into the 3D regime, and the experimental approaches to manipulate the surface states via both the surface-sensitive spectroscopy and electrical detections.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computer Science(all)
- Materials Science(all)