Spontaneous Breathing and Pendelluft in Patients with Acute Lung Injury: A Narrative Review

Po Lan Su, Zhanqi Zhao, Yen Fen Ko, Chang Wen Chen, Kuo Sheng Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by acute-onset rapid-deteriorating inflammatory lung injury. Although the preservation of spontaneous breathing may have physiological benefits in oxygenation, increasing evidence shows that vigorous spontaneous breathing may aggravate lung injury (i.e., patient self-inflicted lung injury). Increased lung stress and pendelluft, which is defined as intrapulmonary gas redistribution without a significant change in tidal volume, are important mechanisms of patient self-inflicted lung injury. The presence of pendelluft may be considered a surrogate marker of vigorous inspiratory effort, which can cause the dependent lung to overstretch. In this review, we summarized three major methods for electrical impedance tomography–based pendelluft monitoring. Future studies are warranted to compare and validate the different methods of pendelluft estimation in patients with ARDS.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7449
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Medicine


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