This study proposes a three-lens configuration for generating a stable donutlike vortex laser beam with controlled Ince-Gaussian mode (IGM) operation in the model of laser-diode (LD)-pumped solid-state lasers. Simply controlling the lateral off-axis position of the pump beam's focus on the laser crystal can generate a desired donutlike vortex beam from the proposed simple and easily made three-lens configuration, a proposed astigmatic mode converter assembled into one body with a concave-convex laser cavity.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Engineering (miscellaneous)
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering