Steady stratified circulation induced by constant coastal wind

C. W. Kong, R. R.J. Hwang, R. Y. Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The nearshore zone is the area where the action of waves and currents on the sea bed is most intense, and where thermal stratification plays an important role in the transport of momentum, heat and pollutants. Therefore, in recent years this topic has drawn the attention of various investigations using analytical, experimental or numerical methods. The coastal water surface can be thought to be agitated by the uniform wind shear stress under flow field with thermal stratified density if the on-shore and off-shore wind blowing over the coastal water surface is assumed to be uniform. The physical properties that enter into the governing equations, which both describe the problem and are also essential to the solution of the phenomena of interest. are the eddy viscosity and the eddy diffusivity. The nonlinear governing equation is simplified in this present work by using the Boussinesq Approximation. A quadratic upwind finite volume method employing contravariant velocities as dependent variables is applied to the simulation of a three-dimensional steady state laminar incompressible flow. The flux terms in the basic equations were discretized via the QUICK1scheme for internal nodes and power-law scheme for the boundary nodes. The resulting algebraic equations were solved in a decoupled manner by the SIMPLEC2solution algorithm. A numerical method was then utilized in calculating the flow conditions for ratios of shear stress region and depth, and for different obstacles near the shoreline. Two circulation forms would be formed when the distance of the obstacle (Ex, breakwater) from the coast is equal to the depth. The cellular circulation in the lower layer would become gradually weakened with an increasing distance of the obstacle from the coast. If the eddy viscosity and eddy diffusivity are considered, the cellular circulation in the lower layer would also become gradually weakened. The cellular circulation would arise both behind and in front of the coastal structures, if the terrains with sedimentary obstacles are considered. The cellular circulation in the low layer would also tend to gradually disappear; however, the tendency of weakening is more apparent than the former. The effects of the cellular circulation in the lower layer would make it difficult to transport oxygen, heat and pollutants. Finally, the Coriolis force effect would be taken into consideration and therefore, its order of influence could be indicated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-169
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Computational Fluid Dynamics
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 1995 Jan 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computational Mechanics
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Steady stratified circulation induced by constant coastal wind'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this