Stress-induced voiding under vias connected to wide Cu metal leads

E. T. Ogawa, J. W. McPherson, J. A. Rosal, K. J. Dickerson, Tz-Cheng Chiu, L. Y. Tsung, M. K. Jain, T. D. Bonifield, J. C. Ondrusek, W. R. McKee

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

76 Citations (Scopus)


Stress-induced voiding is observed in Cu-based, deep-submicron, dual-damascene technologies where voids are formed under the via when the via connects to a wide metal lead below it. The voiding results from the supersaturation of vacancies that develops due to grain growth when the Cu is not properly annealed prior to being fully constrained. The driving force for voiding is shown to be stress migration with a maximum in voiding rate observed at ∼190°C. A diffusional model is presented which shows that the voiding mechanism is an issue primarily for vias connected to wide Cu leads. A thermomechanical stress exponent of 3.2 and a diffusional activation energy of 0.74 eV were determined for this stress-induced voiding mechanism.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2002 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium Proceedings, IRPS 2002 - 40th Annual
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)0780373529
Publication statusPublished - 2002 Jan 1
Event40th Annual IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, IRPS 2002 - Dallas, United States
Duration: 2002 Apr 72002 Apr 11

Publication series

NameIEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium Proceedings
ISSN (Print)1541-7026


Other40th Annual IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, IRPS 2002
Country/TerritoryUnited States

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Engineering(all)


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