Stress-induced voiding under vias connected to wide Cu metal leads

E. T. Ogawa, J. W. McPherson, J. A. Rosal, K. J. Dickerson, T. C. Chiu, L. Y. Tsung, M. K. Jain, T. D. Bonifield, J. C. Ondrusek, W. R. McKee

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

146 Citations (Scopus)


Stress-induced voiding is observed in Cu-based, deep-submicron, dual-damascene technologies where voids are formed under the via when the via connects to a wide metal lead below it. The voiding results from the supersaturation of vacancies that develops due to grain growth when the Cu is not properly annealed prior to being fully constrained. The driving force for voiding is shown to be stress migration with a maximum in voiding rate observed at ∼ 190 °C. A diffusional model is presented which shows that the voiding mechanism is an issue primarily for vias connected to wide Cu leads. A thermomechanical stress exponent of 3.2 and a diffusional activation energy of 0.74 eV were determined for this stress-induced voiding mechanism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)312-321
Number of pages10
JournalAnnual Proceedings - Reliability Physics (Symposium)
Publication statusPublished - 2002
EventProceedings of the 2002 40th annual IEEE International Relaibility Physics Symposium Proceedings - Dallas, TX, United States
Duration: 2002 Apr 72002 Apr 11

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality


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